The Climatology of Bhutan Booklet

The National Center for Hydrology and Meteorology (NCHM), Bhutan, in collaboration with Regional Integrated Multi-hazard Early Warning Systems (RIMES), Thailand and with support from the WMO GFCS Government of Canada produced the “Climate of Bhutan” booklet in the year 2018.

The Climate of Bhutan booklet contains the climatology of dzongkhags(districts) of Bhutanbased on interim climate analysis from 1996 to 2013. Tmax, Tmin and Rainfall (daily value) are three basic parameters considered for climatology preparation. The initial analysis used 68 meteorological stations, including 20 Class A (Agro meteorological) stations in 20 districts of Bhutan and 48 Class C (Climatological) meteorology stations. For all class, ‘A’ stations, continuous data is available from 1996 to 2016, while for class C stations, data availability varies greatly, with few having insufficient climate data. The R Program with the package of RclimDex was used for quality control purposes.

Figure 1. Physiographical features of Bhutan and surrounding areas

After an initial screening of the station using the RclimDex tool, 44 meteorological stations selected out of 68 stations to prepare the final report. The 17 stations had more than 15 years of climate data; 22 stations had more than 10 years of climate data and 5 stations had about 10 years of climate data. The ArcGIS software is used for the spatial plotting of maps. The report contains an analysis of the maximum temperature for May & June, March, April, and May, and the minimum temperature for December, January, and February over Bhutan. Bhutan received rainfall mainly in two seasons’ viz. summer monsoon and spring season. The winter and autumn season is mostly dry for Bhutan. The spatial variation of total annual rainfall during these four seasons were studied in detail in the final report.

Figure 2. Climatology of Bhutan

The area of Bhutan was classified under four classes of Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Climate Booklet contains the climatology of Bhutan district in detail using Köppen-Geiger climate classification. The final reports also explored the Precipitation and Temperature Analysis using high-resolution gridded products from APHRODITE’s-MA, PERSIANN-CDR, NASA’s Giovanni and downscaled projections from NEX-GDDP datasets. Finally, the comparison was made between satellite products and station data over precipitation. The detailed report can be found >> Here <<